Abstract The plasticity of chromatin is governed by multi-subunit protein complexes that enzymatically regulate chromosomal structure and activity. Such complexes include ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling factors that are involved in many fundamental processes such as transcription, DNA repair, replication and chromosome structure maintenance. Because ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling factors play important roles, it is not surprising to find that their functions are regulated in a plethora of ways, including post-translational modifications of their subunits and subunit composition changes. The activity of these enzymes is modulated by many factors, including linker histones, histone variants, histone chaperones, non-histone chromatin constituents such as HMG-proteins and secondary messengers, such as inositolpolyphosphates. Additionally, specific histone modifications and interaction with site-specific transcriptional regulators direct the targeting of these activities. Understanding the network of mechanisms that control ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling will constitute an important challenge towards our understanding of chromatin dynamics.