In past years, the high rates of development of the Soviet economy have required the employment of a quantity of labor power in the national economy that has considerably exceeded the natural growth of manpower resources. By the end of the 1960s, additional sources of labor power - households and the rural population - were essentially exhausted. The percentage of pension-age persons employed in the national economy can hardly be increased. As a result, many branches of the national economy have begun to experience a manpower shortage which is slowing down the development of the economy and retarding the increase in the effectiveness of production. In 1971-1975, the rational use of manpower resources will also be an important problem since this five-year period is on the threshold of the period when the increase in manpower resources will decline (a generation born during years with a low birth rate will come of working age).