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Stage 3 Macular Hole: Role of Optical Coherence Tomography and of B-scan Ultrasonography

American Journal of Ophthalmology
DOI: 10.1016/j.ajo.2004.12.030
  • Medicine


Purpose To analyze the various aspects of Stage 3 macular hole with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and B-scan ultrasonography. Design Observational case series. Methods Patients referred for full-thickness macular hole were prospectively screened with OCT and B-scan ultrasonography. OCT examination analyzed the diameter of the hole, the posterior hyaloid, the surrounding retina, and the inconstant presence of a pseudo-operculum. B-scan ultrasonography permitted the distinction between stage 3 and stage 4 holes, based on the detachment of the posterior hyaloid. Results The study included 62 eyes with stage 3 holes. On OCT, the typical aspect with a hyaloid detached from the macular area was observed in 37% of the eyes (group 3C). In 42% of the eyes (group 3B), a focal adherence was visible at the margin of the hole, as in stage 2 macular hole, but the hole was long-standing, large, and noneccentric. In 21% of the eyes, the hyaloid was not visible anterior to the retina but was still adherent to it (group 3A). In the absence of B-scan ultrasonography, these OCT features could be confused with a stage 4 macular hole. No difference in the size of the hole was observed between subgroups. Conclusion OCT can show various aspects of stage 3 macular holes. B-scan ultrasonography was useful for assessing the location of the posterior hyaloid and to distinguish stage 3 from stage 4 macular holes. These features may provide additional information on the pathogenesis of macular hole and may have therapeutic implications.

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