This article discusses the major theoretical models and constructs associated with the area of motivation and attitudes in second language acquisition. Three perspectives of motivation, societal, activity-centered, and individual, are reviewed, and it is shown how the perspective focusing on the individual is the most appropriate when considering attitudes and motivation. Six theoretical models from this latter classification are briefly described, emphasizing their similarities, differences, and contributions. In addition, five current issues in this area are discussed. These include the degree of association between motivation and achievement, the direction of causation, the integrative–instrumental dichotomy, second vs. foreign language learning, and motivation vs. motivating.