Abstract The roots and rhizomes of Smilax riparia (SR), called “Niu-Wei-Cai” in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), are believed to be effective in treating gout symptoms. However, it is not clear if the active constituents and uricosuric mechanisms of S. riparia support its therapeutic activities. In this study, we isolated two steroidal glycosides named riparoside B and timosaponin J from the total saponins of S. riparia. We then examined if these two compounds were effective in reducing serum uric acid levels in a hyperuricemic mouse model induced by potassium oxonate. We found that the two steroidal glycosides possess potent uricosuric effect in hyperuricemic mice through decreasing renal mURAT1 mainly and inhibiting XOD activity in a certain extent, which contribute to the enhancement of uric acid excretion and attenuate hyperuricemia-induced renal dysfunction. Riparoside B and timosaponin J may have a clinical utility in treating gout and other medical conditions caused by hyperuricemia.