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The distribution of earthquake multiplets beneath the southwest Pacific

Earth and Planetary Science Letters
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2010.10.023
  • Deep
  • Focus
  • Earthquake
  • Clustering
  • Location
  • Subducting
  • Computer Science


Abstract Earthquakes beneath the southwest Pacific occur from the surface down to 700km depth. Teleseismic waveforms created by some of these earthquakes are almost identical. We investigate Tonga–Kermadec and Vanuatu subduction zone earthquake P-coda waveforms using a cross-correlation technique and hierarchical clustering algorithm in order to determine the origin of waveform similarity and the distribution of earthquakes producing similar waveforms. We show that scatterers forming the majority of power in the P-wave coda are localised around the receiver. As a result, waveform similarity provides a much weaker constraint on source separation than in local studies. Waveform similarity can provide stronger constraints on focal mechanism. Most earthquake multiplets within the Tonga–Fiji–Kermadec Wadati–Benioff zone are found at depths between 0–60km and 520–620km. A significant proportion of all deep-focus events in south Pacific subduction zones have waveforms similar to those of at least one other event. Relative relocation of events within the largest identified multiplet reveals a planar zone of seismicity sub-parallel to the nodal plane of a related centroid moment tensor solution. Groups of earthquakes with similar waveforms remain active on at least the 14-year recording timescale. We equate this to repeated rupture on single or closely related shear systems within the subducting slabs.

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