Abstract 1. 1. The problem of cholecystitis in childhood is defined from the point of view of incidence and differential diagnosis. The significance of jaundice in these cases is emphasized. 2. 2. The literature on the subject is brought up to date and critically analyzed. Case reports from 1938 to 1948 are listed. 3. 3. The experience of 21 contemporary authorities is recounted. 4. 4. Brief remarks are presented on pathology, etiology, clinical picture, diagnosis, and treatment of cholecystitis in childhood. 5. 5. Cholecystitis in childhood is contrasted with the adult disease.