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The influence of human T lymphotropic virus type I infection on the outcome of cardiovascular surgery

Authors
Journal
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
0022-5223
Publisher
Elsevier
Volume
120
Issue
4
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1067/mtc.2000.108594
Disciplines
  • Medicine

Abstract

Abstract Objective: Human T lymphotropic virus type I infects CD4+ T cells and affects cell-mediated immunity. Cardiopulmonary bypass transiently alters lymphocyte subsets, resulting in a reduction in CD4+ T cells and an increase in CD8+ T cells. We proposed that cardiovascular operations and human T lymphotropic virus type I infection may act synergistically, resulting in serious damage to cell-mediated immunity. Methods: A total of 517 consecutive patients who were preoperatively screened for anti-human T lymphotropic virus type I antibody and underwent cardiovascular operations with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled in this study. Of the 517 patients, 82 (16%) had positive test results for anti-human T lymphotropic virus type I antibody. The surgical outcome of patients with positive and negative results for anti-human T lymphotropic virus type I antibody was analyzed retrospectively. Results: There was no difference between the 2 groups with respect to early mortality. Distribution of survival curve was also not significantly different (P = .5; mean follow-up duration, 2.4 ± 1.8 years [range, 0-9.4 years] and 3.2 ± 2.8 years [range, 0-9.8 years]) in the groups with positive and negative antibody results, respectively). In particular, long-term follow-up did not reveal adult T-cell leukemia or human T lymphotropic virus type I–associated myelopathy, and occurrence of neoplasm did not differ between groups. Early infectious complication was, however, significantly higher in the group with positive antibody results than in the group with negative results (P = .02). Logistic regression analysis revealed human T lymphotropic virus type I infection as a significant risk for this complication (P = .04; odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-5.8). Conclusion: A combination of human T lymphotropic virus type I infection and cardiovascular operation is believed to increase the potential risk of infectious complications shortly after the operation. However, this synergistic effect seems to be transient and has little influence on long-term prognosis. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2000;120:699-706)

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