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Some observations on raised grain

Madison, Wis. : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory
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3 6 3011 1 SOME OBSERVATIONS ON RAISED GRAI N February 193 2 No. 81012 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREST SERVIC E FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATOR Y Madison 5, Wisconsi n In Cooperation with the University of Wisconsin 5 'SORE OBSERVATIONS ON RAISED GRAIN- By . . ARTHUR KOEHLER,- Principal Xylotomist , In,Charge, Section of Silvicult.ural Relations r - , Woodworkers and finishers-are confronted with certain difficultie s classed under the category of "raised grain" which so far have resiste d 'satisfactory solution . This paper describes some observations on raised graih that may'lead to"a'better understanding of the problems which i t presents and which may Suggest approaches to overcoming it . Two types of raised grain ar e 'comMonly ' recognized and spoken of a s such: (1) That in whichfibers'or parts of fibers project above the su r face, and (2) that in which the whole summerwood (or springwood) of th e annual rings extends above the surface, giving it a corrugated appearance . A third type in which the tips or edges of annual rings become loose an d rise up, also occurs . It is more commonly known as "loosened grain," whic h probably is a better descriptive term, and, in fact, has been accepted - as a standard term under American Lumber Standards : Under the first of these types of raised grain there is_one for m in which individual fibers, groups of fibers,' or even fragments have been ' loosened at one end, and'these ends project like fuzz or minute sliver s from the surface after planing or sanding (fig . 1) . This phenomenon seems to be a characteristic of certain kinds or types of wood rather tha n of the method. Of surfacing them. For example, in some species, such a s cottonwood and elm, it occurs commonly, whereas in mahogany, oak, an d certain other species of hardwood, it is troublesome in only certain type s of lumber. Whether in such cases the fibers are not equally well attache d by growth along their full length or whether they are more interlaced

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