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Single crystal CVD diamond growth strategy by the use of a 3D geometrical model: Growth on (113) oriented substrates

Publication Date
  • <P>The Quality Of Single Crystal Diamond Obtained By Microwave Cvd Processes Has Been Drastically Im
  • Tallaire
  • J
  • Achard
  • F
  • Silva
  • R
  • S
  • Sussmann
  • A
  • Gicquel
  • E
  • Rzepka
  • Physica Status Solidi (A) 201
  • 2419-2424 (2004)
  • G
  • Bogdan
  • M
  • Nesladek
  • J
  • D'Haen
  • J
  • Maes
  • V
  • V
  • Moshchalkov
  • K
  • Haenen
  • M
  • D'Olieslaeger
  • Physica Status Solidi (A) 202
  • 2066-2072 (2005)
  • M
  • Yamamoto
  • T
  • Teraji
  • T
  • Ito
  • Journal Of Crystal Growth 285
  • 130-136 (2005)]
  • Additionally
  • Recent Results Have Unambiguously Shown The Occurrence Of (110) Faces On Crystal Edges And (113) Fac
  • Silva
  • J
  • Achard
  • X
  • Bonnin
  • A
  • Michau
  • A
  • Tallaire
  • O
  • Brinza
  • A
  • Gicquel
  • Physica Status Solidi (A) 203
  • 3049-3055 (2006)]
  • We Have Developed A 3D Geometrical Growth Model To Account For The Final Crystal Morphology
  • The Basic Parameters Of This Growth Model Are The Relative Displacement Speeds Of (111)
  • (110) And (113) Faces Normalized To That Of The (100) Faces
  • Respectively Alpha
  • Beta
  • And Gamma
  • This Model Predicts Both The Final Equilibrium Shape Of The Crystal (I
  • E
  • After Infinite Growth Time) And The Crystal Morphology As A Function Of Alpha
  • Beta
  • Gamma
  • And Deposition Time
  • </P><P>An Optimized Operating Point
  • Deduced From The Model
  • Has Been Validated Experimentally By Measuring The Growth Rate In (100)
  • (111)
  • (110)
  • And (113) Orientations
  • Furthermore
  • The Evolution Of Alpha
  • Beta
  • Gamma As A Function Of Methane Concentration In The Gas Discharge Has Been Established
  • From These Results
  • Crystal Growth Strategies Can Be Proposed In Order
  • For Example
  • To Enlarge The Deposition Area
  • In Particular
  • We Will Show
  • Using The Growth Model
  • That The Only Possibility To Significantly Increase The Deposition Area Is
  • For Our Growth Conditions
  • To Use A (113) Oriented Substrate
  • A Comparison Between The Grown Crystal And The Model Results Will Be Discussed And Characterizations
  • Epr
  • Sem) Will Be Presented
  • (C) 2008 Elsevier B
  • V
  • All Rights Reserved
  • </P>
  • Biology


Chapter 2 Androgen Action During Prostate Carcinogenesis Diping Wang and Donald J. Tindall Abstract Androgens are critical for normal prostate development and function, as well as prostate cancer initiation and progression. Androgens function mainly by regulating target gene expression through the androgen receptor (AR). Many studies have shown that androgen-AR signaling exerts actions on key events during prostate carcinogenesis. In this review, androgen action in distinct aspects of prostate carcinogenesis, including (i) cell proliferation, (ii) cell apoptosis, and (iii) prostate cancer metastasis will be discussed. Key words: Androgen receptor, prostate cancer, androgen metabolism, androgen signaling, castration-resistant prostate cancer. 1. Androgen Signaling Androgens are the male sex hormones, which control the differ- entiation and maturation of male reproductive organs, including the prostate gland. Testosterone is the principal androgen in cir- culation and is synthesized by Leydig cells in the testes, under the regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH), which is further regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Adrenal glands also synthesize a small amount of androgens, such as dehy- droepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione (4-dione) (1). Testosterone enters prostate cells by passive diffusion, where it is converted enzymatically by 5-α reductases to the more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (2). Binding of androgens to the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-modulated transcrip- tion factor, induces a conformational change in the AR, causing release of heat shock proteins and translocation of the AR to the F. Saatcioglu (ed.), Androgen Action, Methods in Molecular Biology 776, DOI 10.1007/978-1-61779-243-4_2, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011 25 26 Wang and Tindall nucleus, where it transcriptionally regulates the expression of tar- get genes (3). In addition to the classic genomic effects of sex steroids, accu- mulating

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