Affordable Access

Publisher Website

Ambulatory-Based Standardized Therapy for Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis: Experience from Nepal, 2005–2006

Public Library of Science
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008313
  • Research Article
  • Infectious Diseases/Antimicrobials And Drug Resistance
  • Public Health And Epidemiology/Global Health
  • Public Health And Epidemiology/Infectious Diseases
  • Respiratory Medicine/Respiratory Infections
  • Mathematics
  • Medicine


Objective The aim of this study was to describe treatment outcomes for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) outpatients on a standardized regimen in Nepal. Methodology Data on pulmonary MDR-TB patients enrolled for treatment in the Green Light Committee-approved National Programme between 15 September 2005 and 15 September 2006 were studied. Standardized regimen was used (8Z-Km-Ofx-Eto-Cs/16Z-Ofx-Eto-Cs) for a maximum of 32 months and follow-up was by smear and culture. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) results were not used to modify the treatment regimen. MDR-TB therapy was delivered in outpatient facilities for the whole course of treatment. Multivariable analysis was used to explain bacteriological cure as a function of sex, age, initial body weight, history of previous treatment and the region of report. Principal Findings In the first 12-months, 175 laboratory-confirmed MDR-TB cases (62% males) had outcomes reported. Most cases had failed a Category 2 first-line regimen (87%) or a Category 1 regimen (6%), 2% were previously untreated contacts of MDR-TB cases and 5% were unspecified. Cure was reported among 70% of patients (range 38%–93% by Region), 8% died, 5% failed treatment, and 17% defaulted. Unfavorable outcomes were not correlated to the number of resistant drugs at baseline DST. Cases who died had a lower mean body weight than those surviving (40.3 kg vs 47.2 kg, p<0.05). Default was significantly higher in two regions [Eastern OR = 6.2; 95%CL2.0-18.9; Far West OR = 5.0; 95%CL1.0-24.3]. At logistic regression, cure was inversely associated with body weight <36 kg [Adj.OR = 0.1; 95%CL0.0-0.3; ref. 55–75 kg] and treatment in the Eastern region [Adj.OR = 0.1; 95%CL0.0-0.4; ref. Central region]. Conclusions The implementation of an ambulatory-based treatment programme for MDR-TB based on a fully standardized regimen can yield high cure rates even in resource-limited settings. The determinants of unfavorable outcome should be investigated thoroughly to maximize likelihood of successful treatment.

There are no comments yet on this publication. Be the first to share your thoughts.