Abstract Neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1) 1 1 Italic abbreviation “ Nrg-1” represent gene, “NRG-1” represent protein. gene has been considered as a schizophrenia susceptibility gene. In order to observe the association of Nrg-1 gene with schizophrenia, the study was designed to investigate the effect of anti-psychotic treatment on the Nrg-1 mRNA expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The Nrg-1 mRNA expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) was measured by using semi-quantitative RT-PCR in 31 first-onset schizophrenia patients, 16 sibling controls and 31 no-sibship controls. Results showed that Nrg-1 mRNA expression in PBLs of patients was lower than that in other two control groups ( F = 6.722, P = 0.002). However, as follow-up time extended, from the second week, Nrg-1 mRNA expression of PBLs in antipsychotic treated patients gradually increased and has obvious statistical significance compared the efficacy of taking anti-psychotic before and after therapy. These results demonstrated that Nrg-1 gene has association with schizophrenia. It is possible to select Nrg-1 mRNA expression of PBLs in schizophrenia patients as a potential therapeutic marker.