Abstract The current paper examines associations among measures of polychronicity, goal orientation, and error orientation with the intent of further explicating the nomological network surrounding polychronicity. Two samples of participants completed questionnaires measuring polychronicity, goal orientation, and error orientation: students from a South-western University ( n = 302) and employees in a South-western City ( n = 105). As hypothesized, polychronicity was related positively to learning goal orientation and negatively to performance-avoid goal orientation. In addition, performance-avoid goal orientation mediated the relationship between polychronicity and Error Strain orientation. Discussion emphasizes construct development as well as future research directions.