Innate nonself recognition must rely on common structures of invading microbes. In a differential display screen for up-regulated immune genes in the moth Trichoplusia ni we have found mechanisms for recognition of bacterial cell wall fragments. One bacteria-induced gene encodes a protein that, after expression in the baculovirus system, was shown to be a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP). It binds strongly to Gram-positive bacteria. We have also cloned the corresponding cDNA from mouse and human and shown this gene to be expressed in a variety of organs, notably organs of the immune system—i.e., bone marrow and spleen. In addition, purified recombinant murine PGRP was shown to possess peptidoglycan affinity. From our results and the sequence homology, we conclude that PGRP is a ubiquitous protein involved in innate immunity, conserved from insects to humans.