Yeast cells mutated in YRB2, which encodes a nuclear protein with similarity to other Ran-binding proteins, fail to export nuclear export signal (NES)-containing proteins including HIV Rev out of the nucleus. Unlike Xpo1p/Crm1p/exportin, an NES receptor, Yrb2p does not shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm but instead remains inside the nucleus. However, by both biochemical and genetic criteria, Yrb2p interacts with Xpo1p and not with other members of the importin/karyopherin β superfamily. Moreover, the Yrb2p region containing nucleoporin-like FG repeats is important for NES-mediated protein export. Taken together, these data suggest that Yrb2p acts inside the nucleus to mediate the action of Xpo1p in at least one of several nuclear export pathways.