The antibacterial effect of moxifloxacin was studied by using an in vitro pharmacodynamic model of infection with dosing simulations of 400 mg every 24 h for 48 h. Streptococcus pneumoniae was tested by using four wild-type strains for which the moxifloxacin MICs were 0.008, 0.12, 0.14, and 3.6 mg/liter. In addition, two isogenic mutants, generated from the strains for which the moxifloxacin MICs were ≤0.12 mg/liter and for which the MICs were 1.0 and 1.6 mg/liter, were also used. Antibacterial efficacy was measured by the following indices: log change in viable count at 12, 24, 36, and 48 h; area under the bacterial kill curve (AUBKC); and time to kill 99.9% of the initial inoculum. With the three strains for which the moxifloxacin MICs were ≤0.14 mg/liter, there was a marked reduction in viable count over 12 to 36 h; in contrast, with strains for which the MICs were ≥1.0 mg/liter, little killing occurred over 48 h. A sigmoid dose-response model indicated that the area under the curve/MIC ratio was strongly related to the log change in viable count at 24 and 48 h and to the AUBKC. These data indicate that moxifloxacin may have a role in management of S. pneumoniae infection.