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Characterization of liquefaction resistance in gravelly soil: large hammer penetration test and shear wave velocity approach

Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2004.06.010
  • Gravelly Soil
  • Liquefaction
  • Large Hammer Penetration Test
  • Shear Wave Velocity


Abstract Gravelly soil is generally recognized to have no liquefaction potential. However, liquefaction cases were reported in central Taiwan in the 1999 Chi-Chi Taiwan earthquake and in the 1988 Armenia earthquake. Thus, further studies on the liquefaction potential of gravelly soil are warranted. Because large particles can impede the penetration of both standard penetration test and cone penetration test, shear wave velocity-based correlations and large hammer penetration tests (LPT) are employed to evaluate the liquefaction resistance of gravelly soils. A liquefied gravelly deposit site during the Chi-Chi earthquake was selected for this research. In situ physical properties of soil deposits were collected from exploratory trenches. Instrumented LPT and shear wave velocity ( V s) measurements were performed to evaluate the liquefaction resistance. In addition, large-scale cyclic triaxial tests on remolded gravelly soil samples (15 cm in diameter, 30 cm in height) were conducted to verify and improve LPT-based and V s-based correlations. The results show that the LPT and shear wave velocity methods are reasonably suitable for liquefaction assessment of gravelly soils.

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