Abstract About an eightfold increase in protamine kinase activity was detected following extraction of highly purified microsomes from bovine kidney with 1% Triton X-100. Relative to the soluble fraction, the microsomes contained about 30% protamine kinase activity. The microsomal protamine kinase was purified to apparent homogeneity. The purified enzyme exhibited an apparent M r ≈ 45,000 as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by gel permeation chromatography on Sephacryl S-200. Relative to protamine, the purified kinase exhibited about 100% activity with the synthetic peptide RRLSSLRA and about 5,8, and <0.1% activity with casein, histone H2B, and histone H1, respectively. The purified kinase phosphorylated several 40 S ribosome polypeptides. One of these polypeptides was identified as ribosomal protein S6 by N-terminal sequencing. About 2.5 mol of phosphoryl groups was incorporated per mole of ribosomal protein S6 following incubation of the 40 S ribosomes with the purified kinase. Following incubation with protein phosphatase 2A 2, purified preparations of the protamine kinase were inactivated. These properties were identical to those of purified preparations of a protamine kinase from extracts of bovine kidney cytosol ( Z. Damuni, G. D. Amick, and T. R. Sneed, 1989, J. Biol. Chem. 264, 6412–6418). Near identical peptide patterns were obtained following incubation of purified preparations of the microsomal and cytosolic protamine kinases with Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase. The results indicate that a form of the cytosolic protamine kinase is present in microsomes.