Abstract A decade ago, interest in “enhanced” natural radiation was focused primarily on localized industrial activities, e.g., uranium, radium, thorium and phosphate production. Recognition that all human activities influence natural radiation exposure, and that indoor radon exposure is particularly sensitive to such activities (building construction practice, occupant life-styles) has added a new dimension to the problem. Public health assessments must address the problem of high individual risks of lung cancer as well as substantial population risks that are only minimally ameliorated by reduction of high exposures. In the United States, Federal, State, and local government agencies are collaborating with the private sector in developing the information needed for public guidance. Voluntary standards relating to building construction practices are likely to be developed.