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Negation: Philosophical Aspects

Elsevier Ltd
DOI: 10.1016/b0-08-044854-2/01202-5
  • Classical Negation
  • Consistency
  • Contradiction
  • Contraries
  • De Morgan Negation
  • Denial
  • Dialetheism
  • Explosion
  • Expressive Power
  • Intuitionistic Negation
  • Minimal Negation
  • Negation
  • Paraconsistency
  • Paradox
  • Subminimal Negation
  • Philosophy


The correct analysis of negation is a subject of ongoing debate in philosophy, not least because it has wider philosophical implications than might at first be evident. This article considers a number of properties that are characteristic of various operations under the name ‘negation,’ some of the reasons for and against considering some of them to be a correct account of negation, and whether a variety of negations can coexist. The relationships between negation, paradoxes, and consistency, and certain issues in pragmatics intimately related to the correct account of negation, are also discussed.

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