While protein synthesis is rapidly inactivated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells shifted from log growth at 30°C to 43°C, a 1-h 37°C treatment given to cells just prior to the shift to 43°C partially blocks this inactivation. By contrast, such a pre-heat shock treament has no protective effect on translational inactivation at 45°C or higher. Cells allowed to approach stationary phase not only develop an enhanced thermotolerance relative to log cells but also exhibit a pronounced resistance to inactivation of protein synthesis at 43°C as well as at 45°C. We have found that this ‘translational thermotolerance’ can also be induced in S. cerevisiae by briefly treating log phase cells at 30°C with cycloheximide. Using such a procedure to induce stabilization of protein synthesis at 43°C, we have been able to show that heat shock-induced proteins are not responsible for the establishment of this protective effect. This work shows that enhanced thermotolerance can be induced in log cells even after a shift to 43°C, as long as a prior translational thermotolerance has been established. Futhermore, we show that the capacity of plateau cells to maintain translation at 43°C contributes significantly to their state of enhanced thermotolerance.