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Stable Association of Herpes Simplex Virus with Target Membranes Is Triggered by Low pH in the Presence of the gD Receptor, HVEM

American Society for Microbiology
Publication Date
  • Virus-Cell Interactions
  • Biology


Using a liposome-binding assay, we investigated the requirements for activation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) into a state capable of membrane interaction. Virions were mixed with liposomes along with the ectodomain of one of three gD receptors (HVEMt, nectin-1t, or nectin-2t) and incubated under different pH and temperature conditions. Virions failed to associate with liposomes in the presence of nectin-1 or nectin-2 at any temperature or pH tested. In contrast, HVEMt triggered association of HSV with liposomes at pH 5.3 or 5.0 when incubated at 37°C, suggesting that HVEM binding and mildly acidic pH at a physiological temperature provide coactivation signals, allowing virus association with membranes. Virions incubated with HVEMt at 37°C without liposomes rapidly lost infectivity upon exposure to pH 5.0, suggesting that these conditions lead to irreversible virus inactivation in the absence of target membranes. Consistent with the idea that soluble receptor molecules provide a trigger for HSV entry, HVEMt promoted virus entry into receptor-deficient CHO K1 cells. However, in B78H1 cells, HVEMt promoted virus entry with markedly lower efficiency. Interestingly, HSV entry into receptor-bearing CHO K1 cells has been shown to proceed via a pH-dependent manner, whereas HSV entry into receptor-bearing B78H1 cells is pH independent. Based on these observations, we propose that the changes triggered by HVEM and mildly acidic pH that allow liposome association are similar or identical to changes that occur during pH-dependent HSV entry.

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