A Pasteuria isolate associated with a population of the lance nematode Hoplolaimus galeatus was discovered in Peru. The infective propagules adhered to adult stages and juveniles and were found filling the bodies of males and females. The endospore and central core diameters measured 4.5 ± 0.4 pm and 1.9 ± 0.2 [mu]m, respectively, which differed from those reported for other Pasteuria isolates found iu North America on the same host. Examinations of endospore ultrastructure with scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of a thin layer of parasporal fibers surrounding the central core, a thin reduced layer of parasporal fibers in contact with the host's cuticle, and a putative basal core ring. Key words: biodiversity, biological control, endospore, Hoplolaimus galeatus, lance nematode, nematode, parasitism, Pasteuria penetrans, Peru.