Russian Cities. An important peculiarity of Russian urbanization from 1740-1870 was the deceleration of its tempo at precisely the moment when urbanization increased in Western Europe (to the mid-eighteenth century Russia lagged behind only England and France in relative numbers of urban population). The main reasons for this deceleration, in the comparative context, are that the industrial revolution began later in Russia and pro ceeded more slowly than in Western Europe, and that the character of Russian indus trialization was more diffused, in particular industrialization took place in equal parts in the city and the countryside. As result, urban industrialization, the main factor in rapid urbanization in Western European countries was weakened by rural industrialization. In 1725, 78% of all industrial enterprises and 86% of the labor force were concentrated in cities, but by 1868 Russian cities controlled only 41% of industry and 39% of labor.