Summary Modifications in liver prolactin (PRL) receptor levels and serum PRL concentration induced by administration of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) were investigated in rats of both sexes. MPA induced a reduction both of the levels of PRL in the serum and of liver PRL receptors in the female rat. The reduction of the number of PRL receptors caused by MPA was rapid and almost complete after 10 days of treatment and appeared earlier than that of serum PRL levels. Furthermore the MPA-induced decrease in PRL receptors was specific, since insulin binding to the same liver membranes was not affected. MPA given simultaneously with oestradiol (which increases both the number of liver PRL receptors and the serum PRL levels in the male rats) was able to counteract the increase in PRL binding induced by oestradiol. On the contrary, the oestrogen-induced increase in serum PRL was not affected by MPA treatment. Similar results were obtained using tamoxifen, a well known antioestrogenic drug. In conclusion, our results show that the reduction of PRL receptor levels induced by MPA in rat liver is specific, not correlated to serum PRL concentration, and seems to depend on the antioestrogenic activity of the drug.