Abstract Background Human enteroviruses (HEV) are the commonest cause of viral meningitis as well as other pathologies, therefore HEV characterization is important both in patient management and epidemiological investigation. Objectives A 10-year study of patients with enteroviral infection was carried out in Spain to determine the underlying etiology. Study design HEV were fully typed by microneutralisation tests and/or molecular methods. Results A collection of 86404 clinical samples were studied in several Spanish laboratories. These were collected from patients with different syndromes, mainly aseptic meningitis (AM), fever, respiratory diseases and acute flaccid paralysis. Of these, 6867 HEV were obtained. At the National Poliovirus Laboratory 2814 were serotypically characterised. Among non-polio enteroviruses, the eight main serotypes were Echovirus 30 (25%), Echovirus 6 (12.4%), Echovirus 13 (8.3%), Echovirus 11 (7.4%) and Echovirus 9 (4.7%), followed by Coxsackievirus B5 (4.2%) and Echovirus 7 and Coxsackievirus A9 (3.7%) each. In AM cases, Echovirus 30 was identified in 39% of them, followed by Echovirus 6 (14%). However, Echovirus 6 was mainly associated with respiratory disease (17%), followed by Echovirus 11 (10%). On the other hand, Echovirus 30, Echovirus 11 and Echovirus 6 contributed equally with 12% of each serotype in the cases of fever. Conclusions The present report complements previous data (Trallero et al. 13 ), with the results of HEV incidence in Spain from 1998 to 2007. The surveillance described in this study provided valuable information as to which serotypes are in circulation, the emergence of new HEV and association with clinical manifestations.