Abstract Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease causing destruction of periodontal tissues. It is a multifactor disease involving genetic factors and oral environmental factors. To determine genetic risk factors associated with aggressive periodontitis or severe chronic periodontitis, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in multiple candidate genes were investigated in Japanese. We studied 134 patients with aggressive periodontitis, 117 patients with severe chronic periodontitis, and 125 healthy volunteers without periodontitis, under case-control setting, and 310 SNPs in 125 candidate genes were genotyped. Association evaluation by Fisher's exact test ( p<0.01) revealed statistically significant SNPs in multiple genes, not only in inflammatory mediators (IL6ST and PTGDS, associated with aggressive periodontitis; and CTSD, associated with severe chronic periodontitis), but also in structural factors of periodontal tissues (COL4A1, COL1A1, and KRT23, associated with aggressive periodontitis; and HSPG2, COL17A1, and EGF, associated with severe chronic periodontitis). These appear to be good candidates as genetic factors for future study.