Carbenicillin indanyl sodium, an orally active derivative of carbenicillin, is active against a broad spectrum of bacterial species. Although the ester has in vitro antimicrobial activity per se when evaluated in Brain Heart Infusion broth, the in vivo antibacterial activity seen in mice and rats reflects primarily the efficient hydrolysis of the ester to carbenicillin. With an acute systemic infection in mice as a test system, orally administered carbenicillin indanyl sodium protected mice against lethal infections produced by Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Pasteurella multocida, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes. The dose that protected 50% of the animals against each of these infections was comparable to that of parenteral carbenicillin. Against experimental urinary-tract disease in rats produced by E. coli, P. vulgaris, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it was again observed that carbenicillin indanyl sodium provided activity comparable to that of parenterally administered carbenicillin.