Abstract Even if wild poliovirus persists in one country only, global polio eradication cannot be achieved, because of the risk of exportation of wild virus to other countries. Among the countries where polio cases are still occurring, India happens to be the largest country. India cannot become polio free unless Uttar Pradesh and Bihar become polio free. There was a quick decline in polio incidence in some states in India, while other states reported decline slowly, but, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar have never been polio free since the polio eradication programme was launched in 1995. Despite increase in number of pulse polio immunization (PPI) rounds since year 2000 and introduction of monovalent polio vaccine type 1 (mOPV1) and type 3 (mOPV3) in Uttar Pradesh in 2005, there has been no respite in polio incidence in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Lately, majority of polio cases being reported from other states are occurring in migrant population from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, and also molecular study shows that polioviruses being detected in other states have origin in Uttar Pradesh or Bihar. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop a new vaccine or strategy specifically for Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.