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Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use

BioMed Central
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Abstract ral Substance Abuse Treatment, ss BioMed CentPrevention, and Policy Open AcceResearch Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use Sara Smucker Barnwell*1 and Mitch Earleywine2 Address: 1VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System (GLA), Mail Code 116B, 11301 Wilshire Blvd. Los Angeles, CA, 90073, USA and 2University at Albany, State University of New York, Department of Psychology, Social Sciences 369, 1400 Washington Ave, Albany, NY 12222, USA Email: Sara Smucker Barnwell* - [email protected]; Mitch Earleywine - [email protected] * Corresponding author Abstract Background: Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studies reveal similar mechanisms underlying both alcohol and cannabis expectancies, but little research examines simultaneous expectancies for alcohol and cannabis use. Whereas research has demonstrated unique outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use, this study hypothesized that unique cognitive expectancies may underlie simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use. Results: This study examined a sample of 2600 (66% male; 34% female) Internet survey respondents solicited through advertisements with online cannabis-related organizations. The study employed known measures of drug use and expectancies, as well as a new measure of simultaneous drug use expectancies. Expectancies for simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicted simultaneous use over and above expectancies for each drug individually. Discussion: Simultaneous expectancies may provide meaningful information

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