Abstract There is now much evidence that tumors can be immunogenic. Tumor cells very often express antigens in a form recognizable by the host immune system, but most frequently without consequences on tumor progression. This has been shown in many experimental models and different experimental conditions. Immediate mechanisms for the escape of tumors from immune response are very similar with mechanisms for the escape of fetoplacental unit (as an allograft) from maternal immune response. Similarity between these two mechanisms is so significant that any randomness is banished. Mechanisms of anti-tumor immunity in mammals are substantially different in comparison with mechanisms of anti-tumor immunity in other classes of vertebrates. Moreover, type of most frequently tumors in non-mammalians vertebrates is also significant different. Incidence of malignant tumors in non-mammalians vertebrates is significantly less than incidence of malignant tumors in mammals. These facts indicate that immune system of mammals during anti-tumor immune response is tricked with similarity between tumor cells and trophoblast or other placental cells. It may be a specific evolutionary approach in rendering of anti-tumor immunity failure in mammals, and new possibility for anti-tumor immunotherapy.