Larry Portis, Marxism in the USA : Critique of Buhle Paul Buhle confuses « marxism », a particular philosophical approach to the apprehension of social reality, with the political attitudes and practice that is generally called « radicalism ». The misconceptions revealed in his book, Marxism in the USA, illustrate contradictions inherent in social relations and political perceptions in the United States. Buhle continues a trend in American political thought to avoid theoretical speculation and to stress the practical application of received ideas. His emphasis on practical faith over critical reason is, in fact, contrary to the spirit of marxism, which is the application of science to the study of social phenomenon with the objective of acting upon it. But if Buhle tends to define marxism as the reactionaries often do, that is, as a religious system involving good works, faith in struggle, and ecstatic martyrdom, he nevertheless shows that anticapitalist sentiments and movements are deeply rooted in American history and society.