Medullary thyroid carcinoma occurs in both sporadic (75%) and hereditary (25%) forms. The missense mutations of RET proto-oncogene in MTC development have been well demonstrated. To investigate the spectrum of predominant RET germline mutations in exons 10, 11, and 16 in hereditary MTC in Iranian population, 217 participants were included. Genomic DNAs were extracted from the leukocytes using the standard Salting Out/Proteinase K method. Mutation detection was performed through PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing. In 217 participants, 43 missense mutations were identified in exons 10 (6%), 11 (13%), and 16 (0.9%). Moreover, a novel germline mutation was detected in exon 11 (S686N). Also four different polymorphisms were found in intron 16 in eight patients. The obtained data showed the frequency profile of RET mutations in Iranian individuals with MTC (19.8%). The most frequent mutation in our population was C634G whereas in most population it was C634R. Altogether, these results underline the importance of the genetic background of family members of any patient with MTC.