Abstract We report a compact all-fiber gas Raman light source based on hydrogen-filled HC-PCF gas cell with a SM Q-switched fiber laser as the Raman pump source. Theoretical model of the hydrogen SRS based on HC-PCF pumped with Q-switched fiber laser is also analyzed. Simulated results show that the Stokes pulse is much narrower than the pump pulse, and both the Stokes pulse duration and conversion efficiency are increased with the pump pulse energy of the same duration pump pulses. The experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical results in change trend. For the 120ns pump pulses with the repetition rate of 5kHz, the threshold pump energy and conversion efficiency at the threshold are 1.146μJ and 2.69%.