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9-Acridinemethanamine and Acridine-9-Carboxaldehyde as Potential Fluorescence Lifetime pH Indicators

Authors
  • Totland, Christian1, 2
  • Thomas, Peter J.3
  • Holst, Bodil1
  • Akhtar, Naureen1
  • Hovdenes, Jostein4
  • Skodvin, Tore1
  • 1 University of Bergen,
  • 2 Present Address: NGI – Norwegian Geotechnical Institute,
  • 3 NORCE Norwegian Research Centre AS, Fantoftvegen 38, 5072 Bergen, Norway
  • 4 Aanderaa – a Xylem brand, Sanddalsringen 5b, N-5225 Nesttun, Norway
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Fluorescence
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Jun 04, 2020
Volume
30
Issue
4
Pages
901–906
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s10895-020-02564-5
PMID: 32494938
PMCID: PMC7326797
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

A significant challenge concerning the development of fluorescence lifetime (FL) based pH sensors is the paucity of fluorophores with sufficiently large FL variation with pH. Acridine is amongst the indicators with highest fluoresce lifetime responses to pH, with a change in lifetime of about 13 ns within a pH range of 5–8. Here we examine the two acridine derivatives, 9-acridinemethanamine (9-AMA) and acridine-9-carbaldehyde (9-ACA) in terms of their FL pH sensitivity and pH sensing range. Both indicators are characterized when dissolved in buffer solutions, as well as when immobilized in support materials. 9-AMA has a change in FL of 11 ns between pH 2–5, both when dissolved in solution and when immobilized in surfactant-filled mesoporous silica. The FL of 9-ACA is not sensitive to pH when dissolved in buffer solutions; however, when covalently bound to amine-modified silica, its FL changes 15 ns between pH 3–6. 9-AMA and 9-ACA represent promising FL in the pH range of pH 2–6, and could potentially form the basis of new FL pH sensors. Graphical Abstract

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