This review describes examples of structural and functional synergy of the microtubule and actin filament cytoskeleton. An analysis of basal body (centriole)-associated fibrillar networks includes studies of ciliated epithelium, neurosensory epithelium, centrosomes, and ciliated protozoa. Microtubule and actin filament interactions in cell division and development are illustrated by centrosome motility, cleavage furrow positioning, centriole migration, nuclear migration, dynamics in the phragmoplast, growth cone motility, syncytial organization, and ring canals. Model systems currently used for studies on organelle transport are described in relation to mitochondrial transport in axons and vesicular transport in polarized epithelium. Evidence that both anterograde and retrograde motors are associated with one organelle is also discussed. The final section reviews proteins that bind both microtubules and actin filaments and are possible regulators of microtubule-microfilament interactions. Regulatory roles for posttranslational modifications, microtubule and microfilament dynamics, and multisubunit complexes are considered.