Abstract Objective Pharmacologic approaches to study brown adipocyte activation in vivo with a potential of being translational to humans are desired. The aim of this study was to examine pre- and postsynaptic targeting of adrenergic system for enhancing brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism quantifiable by [18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in mice. Methods A β3-adrenoreceptor selective agonist (CL 316243), an adenylyl cyclase enzyme activator (forskolin) and a potent blocker of presynaptic norepinephrine transporter (atomoxetine), were injected through the tail vein of Swiss Webster mice 30minutes before intravenous (iv) administration of [18F]FDG. The mice were placed on the PET/CT bed for 30min PET acquisition followed by 10min CT acquisition for attenuation correction and anatomical delineation of PET images. Results Activated interscapular (IBAT), cervical, periaortic and intercostal BAT were observed in 3-dimentional analysis of [18F]FDG PET images. CL 316243 increased the total [18F]FDG standard uptake value (SUV) of IBAT 5-fold greater compared to that in placebo-treated mice. It also increased the [18F]FDG SUV of white adipose tissue (2.4-fold), and muscle (2.7-fold), as compared to the control. There was no significant difference in heart, brain, spleen and liver uptakes between groups. Forskolin increased [18F]FDG SUV of IBAT 1.9-fold greater than that in placebo-treated mice. It also increased the [18F]FDG SUV of white adipose tissue (2.2-fold) and heart (5.4-fold) compared to control. There was no significant difference in muscle, brain, spleen, and liver uptakes between groups. Atomoxetine increased [18F]FDG SUV of IBAT 1.7-fold greater than that in placebo-treated mice. There were no significant differences in all other organs compared to placebo-treated mice except liver (1.6 fold increase). A positive correlation between SUV levels of IBAT and CT Hounsfield unit (HU) (R2=0.55, p<0.001) and between CT HU levels of IBAT and liver (R2=0.69, p<0.006) was observed. Conclusions The three pharmacologic approaches reported here enhanced BAT metabolism by targeting different sites in adrenergic system as measured by [18F]FDG PET/CT.