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Transportation problems in the city of Makkah outside the period of Hajj.

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Durham E-Theses Transportation problems in the city of Makkah outside the period of Hajj. Mekki, Z.A. How to cite: Mekki, Z.A. (1988) Transportation problems in the city of Makkah outside the period of Hajj., Durham theses, Durham University. Available at Durham E-Theses Online: Use policy The full-text may be used and/or reproduced, and given to third parties in any format or medium, without prior permission or charge, for personal research or study, educational, or not-for-profit purposes provided that: • a full bibliographic reference is made to the original source • a link is made to the metadata record in Durham E-Theses • the full-text is not changed in any way The full-text must not be sold in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders. Please consult the full Durham E-Theses policy for further details. Academic Support Office, Durham University, University Office, Old Elvet, Durham DH1 3HP e-mail: [email protected] Tel: +44 0191 334 6107 The copyright of this thesis rests with the author. No quotation from it should be published without his prior written consent and information derived from it should be acknowledged. Transportation Problems in the City of Hakkah Outside the Period of Hajj ZUHAIR ABDULLAH HEKKI This Thesis is submitted in fulfillment of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Durham, England. May 1988 2 3 MAR 19R~ To my beloved family: tather, Mother an~ wife. ABSTRACT Makkah is an ancient centre, with a history extending back to 1892 BC. Makkah has been and remains uniquely important as the heart of the Islamic world, being the birthplace of the Prophet Mohammad and of the origins of Islam. It 1s the focal point for Moslems, the world over, and, in addition to the many visitors throughout the year, the city receives a huge annual infl

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