Abstract Sarcocysts were dissected from the tongue of a nine-banded armadillo ( Dasypus novemcinctus). DNA was extracted and characterised by PCR amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and nucleotide sequencing. A total of 1879 nucleotides were compared; the sarcocyst DNA sequence was identical to that reported for Sarcocystis neurona. DNA was extracted from the sarcocysts of five more nine-banded armadillos. A 254-nucleotide sequence was determined for each and found to be identical to S. neurona. Western blot techniques for detection of anti- S. neurona antibody were developed for use with armadillo plasma and samples from 19 wild-caught and 17 captive-raised armadillos were examined. Whereas all of the 19 wild-caught armadillos had antibodies to S. neurona, only one of 17 captive-raised armadillos did. These results suggest that the nine-banded armadillo are naturally infected with S. neurona.