The idea that microbes induce disease has steered medical research toward the discovery of antibacterial products for the prevention and treatment of microbial infections. The twentieth century saw increasing dependency on antimicrobials as mainline therapy accentuating the notion that bacterial interactions with humans were to be avoided or desirably controlled. The last two decades, though, have seen a refocusing of thinking and research effort directed towards elucidating the critical inter-relationships between the gut microbiome and its host that control health/wellness or disease. This research has redefined the interactions between gut microbes and vertebrates, now recognizing that the microbial active cohort and its mammalian host have shared co-evolutionary metabolic interactions that span millennia. Microbial interactions in the gastrointestinal tract provide the necessary cues for the development of regulated pro- and anti-inflammatory signals that promotes immunological tolerance, metabolic regulation and other factors which may then control local and extra-intestinal inflammation. Pharmacobiotics, using nutritional and functional food additives to regulate the gut microbiome, will be an exciting growth area of therapeutics, developing alongside an increased scientific understanding of gut-microbiome symbiosis in health and disease.