Tridirectional Protonic Conductivity in Soft Materials ATR IR spectra were measured on a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) Per- kin-Elmer System 2000 spectrometer equipped with a SpectraTech horizontal ATR cell (60� incident angle, Ge ATR crystal). Titanium dioxide mesoporous films were deposited on ITO glass by the re- verse-micellar route and the photosensitizer RuL2(NCS)2 was attached as in . The ureasil precursors were synthesized as in . Synthesis of class II nanocomposite gels using ureasil precursors, their enrichment with the iodine/ iodide couple, and their deposition in a DSPEC was carried out as follows: ab- solute ethanol (2 mL) was mixed with the ureasil precursor (PP-4000, 2 g). KI (0.5 M) and I2 (0.05 M) were added to the above mixture with stirring at ambi- ent conditions. The mixture was continuously stirred for about 3 h. Then acetic acid (0.35 mL) was added and stirring continued for another 4 h at ambient conditions. At the end of this period, a viscous brown fluid was obtained. A few drops of this solution were applied to the electrode-bearing TiO2 film with at- tached dye and we placed the second (platinized) electrode on top, simply by pressing the two electrodes together. Connections were made with silver paste and a copper ribbon as seen schematically in Figure 4. Received: October 29, 2001 Final version: November 30, 2001 –  B. O’Reagan, M. Grätzel, Nature 1991, 353, 737.  M. K. Nazeeruddin, A. Kay, I. Rodicio, R. Humphry-Baker, E. Müller, P. Liska, N. Vlachopoulos, M. Grätzel, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1993, 115, 6382.  E. Stathatos, P. Lianos, C. Krontiras, J. Phys. Chem. 2001, 105, 3486.  B. O’Reagan, D. T. Schwartz, J. Appl. Phys. 1996, 80, 4749.  F. Cao, G. Oskam, C. P. Searson, J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99, 17 071.  M. Matsumoto, H. Miyazaki, K. Matsuhiro, Y. Kumashiro, Y. Takaoka, Solid State Ionics 1996, 89, 263.  K. Tennakone, G. K. R. Senadeera, V. P S. Perera, I. R. M. Kottegoda, L. A. A . De Silva, Chem. Mater. 1999, 11, 2474.