Abstract The antiviral and antitumor activity in vitro of normal, stimulated, vaccinia virus “immune”, and activated peritoneal macrophages were compared. Activated (pyran or corynebacteria induced) PEC exhibited both antitumor and antiviral activity. Stimulated (thioglyocollate) and vaccinia virus “immune” PEC inhibited virus growth but did not possess antitumor activity. Normal (unstimulated) PEC were relatively ineffective in either activity. The antiviral activity was nonspecific, being expressed against herpes simplex and EMC viruses in addition to vaccinia. Although a possible role for interferon was suggested by the lack of activity of mouse PEC on vaccinia virus growth in heterologous FLK cells, definitive proof was not obtained. The activity was most pronounced against multiple cycles of viral infection initiated at a low multiplicity of infection. Single cycle virus growth was not affected, suggesting that the major inhibition was on subsequent cycles of virus growth.