Affordable Access

Sensitivity and Specificity of Colorectal Cancer Mass Screening Methods: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Publication Date
  • Biology
  • Chemistry
  • Economics
  • Medicine


Background: Colorectal cancer is the second cause of the cancer related mortalities in the world. Screening can effectively reduce the mortality and morbidity rate of this cancer. Sensitivity and specificity of screening methods play an important role in their efficacy. The aim of this study is to review sensitivity and specificity of selected colorectal cancer screening methods systematically.Methods: This study conducted a systematic review of sensitivity and specificity of five common colorectal cancer screening methods. The sites Pubmed, Cochrane library and the center for review and dissemination (CRD database) were searched systematically in Jan 2009. Key questions for this search were focused on the sensitivity and specificity of the 5 screening methods.Results: In these databases 2713 articles were matched well with our subject. Of these 130 articles were selected with specified inclusion-exclusion criteria. The mean ± standard deviation per patient sensitivities of colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, double contrast barium enema, CT colonography and fecal occult blood test for detecting colorectal cancer were respectively 94.7 ± 4.6 %, 82.0± 9.3%, 82.3 ± 8.7 % , 95.7 ±5.9% and 45.7 ± 26.5% . Specificities of these tests were respectively 99.8 ± 0.2%, 83.9%, 92.4 ± 14.7%, 98.5 ± 1.3% and 87.6 ± 11.4%.Conclusions: Based on available evidences, colonoscopy has the highest sensitivity and specificity among the selected screening methods and fecal occult blood test has the lowest sensitivity. Almost all of the tests except stool exams have acceptable sensitivity and specificity for detecting colorectal cancer.Key words: Sensitivity; Specificity; Colorectal neoplasm; Mass screeningPlease cite this article as: Allameh Z, Davari M, Emami MH. Sensitivity and Specificity of Colorectal Cancer Mass Screening Methods: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Iran J Cancer Prev. 2011; Vol4, No2, P88-105.References1. Fauci AS. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. 17th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical ; London : McGraw-Hill [distributor]; 2008.2. Irvine EJ, Hunt RH. Evidence-based gastroenterology. Hamilton, Ont. ; London: BC Decker; 2001.3. Feldman M, Friedman LS, Sleisenger MH. Sleisenger & Fordtran's gastrointestinal and liver disease : pathophysiology, diagnosis, management. 7th ed. / [edited by] Mark Feldman, Lawrence S. Friedman, Marvin H. Sleisenger. ed. Philadelphia ; London: Saunders; 2002.4. Fletcher RH, Fletcher SW. Clinical epidemiology : the essentials. 4th ed. Baltimore, Md.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.5. National cancer control programmes. Policies and managerial guide lines. 2nd Edition, Genera: World health organization, 2002.6. Dominitz JA, Eisen GM, Baron TH. Complications of colonoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 2003;57(4):441-445.7. Baxter NN, Goldwasser MA, Paszat LF, Saskin R, Urbach DR, Rabeneck L. Association of Colonoscopy and Death From Colorectal Cancer. Annals of Internal Medicine 2009;150(1):1-8.8. Bielen DJLE, Bosmans HTC, Wever LLID. Clinical validation of high-resolution fast spin-echo MR colonography after colon distention with air. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2005;22(3):400-5.9. Menardo G. Sensitivity of diagnostic examinations for colorectal polyps. Techniques in Coloproctology 2004;8(0):s273-s5.10. Yee J, Kumar NN, Godara S. Extracolonic Abnormalities Discovered Incidentally at CT Colonography in a Male Population1. Radiology 2005;236(2):519-26.11. Imperiale TF, Ransohoff DF, Itzkowitz SH, Turnbull BA, Ross ME. Fecal DNA versus fecal occult blood for colorectal-cancer screening in an average-risk population. N Engl J Med 2004;351(26):2704-14.12. Heresbach D, Barrioz T, Lapalus MG, Coumaros D, Bauret P, Potier P, et al. Miss rate for colorectal neoplastic polyps: a prospective multicenter study of back-to-back video colonoscopies. Endoscopy 2008;40(4):284-90.13. Hosokawa O, Hattori M, Douden K, Hayashi H, Ohta K, Kaizaki Y. Difference in accuracy between gastroscopy and colonoscopy for detection of cancer. Hepatogastroenterology 2007;54(74):442-4.14. Bressler B, Paszat LF, Chen Z, Rothwell DM, Vinden C, Rabeneck L. Rates of new or missed colorectal cancers after colonoscopy and their risk factors: a population-based analysis. Gastroenterology 2007;132(1):96-102.15. Rockey DC, Paulson E, Niedzwiecki D, Davis W, Bosworth HB, Sanders L, et al. Analysis of air contrast barium enema, computed tomographic colonography, and colonoscopy: prospective comparison. Lancet. 2005 Jan 22-28;365(9456):305-11.16. Hoppe H, Netzer P, Spreng A, Quattropani C, Mattich J, Dinkel HP. Prospective comparison of contrast enhanced CT colonography and conventional colonoscopy for detection of colorectal neoplasms in a single institutional study using second-look colonoscopy with discrepant results. Am J Gastroenterol 2004;99(10):1924-35.17. Rex DK, Cutler CS, Lemmel GT, Rahmani EY, Clark DW, Helper DJ, et al. Colonoscopic miss rates of adenomas determined by back-to-back colonoscopies. Gastroenterology 1997;112(1):24-8.18. Warneke J, Petrelli N, Herrera L, Nava H. Accuracy of colonoscopy for the detection of colorectal polyps. Dis Colon Rectum 1992;35(10):981-5.19. Gelfand DW, Chen MY, Ott DJ. Benign colorectal neoplasms undetected by colonoscopy. Gastrointest Radiol. 1992 Fall;17(4):344-6.20. Byrd RL, Boggs HW, Jr., Slagle GW, Cole PA. Reliability of colonoscopy. Dis Colon Rectum 1989;32(12):1023-1025.21. Kalra L, Hamlyn AN. Comparative evaluation of investigations for colorectal carcinoma in symptomatic patients. Postgrad Med J. 1988 Sep;64(755):666-8.22. Walleser S, Griffiths A, Lord SJ, Howard K, Solomon MJ, Gebski V. What is the value of computered tomography colonography in patients screening positive for fecal occult blood? A systematic review and economic evaluation. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007;5(12):1439-1446; quiz 1368.23. Cotton PB, Durkalski VL, Pineau BC, Palesch YY, Mauldin PD, Hoffman B, et al. Computed tomographic colonography (virtual colonoscopy): a multicenter comparison with standard colonoscopy for detection of colorectal neoplasia. JAMA. 2004 Apr 14;291(14):1713-9.24. Iannaccone R, Catalano C, Mangiapane F, Murakami T, Lamazza A, Fiori E, et al. Colorectal polyps: detection with low-dose multi-detector row helical CT colonography versus two sequential colonoscopies. Radiology 2005;237(3):927-37.25. Pickhardt PJ, Choi JR, Hwang I, Butler JA, Puckett ML, Hildebrandt HA, et al. Computed tomographic virtual colonoscopy to screen for colorectal neoplasia in asymptomatic adults. N Engl J Med 2003;349(23):2191-200.26. Smith GA, O'Dwyer PJ. Sensitivity of double contrast barium enema and colonoscopy for the detection of colorectal neoplasms. Surg Endosc 2001;15(7):649-52.27. Rex DK, Rahmani EY, Haseman JH, Lemmel GT, Kaster S , Buckley JS.Relative sensitivity of colonoscopy and barium enema for detection of colorectal cancer in clinical practice. Gastroenterology. 1997 Jan;112(1):17-23.28. Reiertsen O, Bakka A, Tronnes S, Gauperaa T. Routine double contrast barium enema and fiberoptic colonoscopy in the diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma. Acta Chir Scand 1988;154(1):53-5.29. Thoeni RF, Petras A. Double-contrast barium-enema examination and endoscopy in the detection of polypoid lesions in the cecum and ascending colon. Radiology 1982;144(2):257-260.30. Fork FT. Double contrast enema and colonoscopy in polyp detection. Gut 1981;22(11):971-7.31. Soon MS, Kozarek RA, AyubK, Soon A, Lin TY, Lin OS. Screening colonoscopy in Chinese and Western patients: a comparative study. Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100(12):2749-55.32. Graser A, Stieber P, Nagel D, Schäfer C, Horst D, Becker CR, et al. Comparison of CT colonography, colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy and faecal occult blood tests for the detection of advanced adenoma in an average risk population. Gut 2009;58(2):241-8.33. Sung JJ, Chan FK, Leung WK, Wu JC, Lau JY, Ching J, et al. Screening for colorectal cancer in Chinese: Comparison of fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy. Gastroenterology 2003;124(3):608-14.34. Schoenfeld P, Lipscomb S, Crook J, Dominguez J, Butler J , Holmes L, et al. Accuracy of polyp detection by gastroenterologists and nurse endoscopists during flexible sigmoidoscopy: a randomized trial. Gastroenterology. 1999 Aug;117(2):312-8.35. Saito Y, Slezak P, Rubio C. The diagnostic value of combining flexible sigmoidoscopy and double-contrast barium enema as a one-stage procedure. Gastrointest Radiol 1989; 14(4):357-9.36. Dubow RA, Katon RM, Benner KG. Short (35-cm) versus long (60-cm) flexible sigmoidoscopy: A comparison of findings and tolerance in asymptomatic patients screened for colorectal neoplasia. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 1985;31(5):305-8.37. Farrands PA, Vellacott KD, Amar SS, Balfour TW, Hardcastle JD. Flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy and double-contrast barium-enema examination in the identification of adenomas and carcinoma of the colon. Dis Colon Rectum 1983; 26(11):725-7.38. Hardcastle JD, Farrands PA, Balfour TW, Chamberlain J, Amar SS, SheldonMG. Controlled trial of faecal occult blood testing in the detection of colorectal cancer. Lancet 1983;2(8340):1-4.39. Jensen J, Kewenter J, Asztely M, Lycke G, Wojciechowski J. Double contrast barium enema and flexible rectosigmoidoscopy: a reliable diagnostic combination for detection of colorectal neoplasm. Br J Surg 1990;77(3):270-2.40. Rozen P, Ron E, Fireman Z, Hallak A, Grossman A, Baratz M, et al. The relative value of fecal occult blood tests and flexible sigmoidoscopy in screening for large bowel neoplasia. Cancer. 1987 Nov 15;60(10):2553-8.41. Jensen J, Kewenter J, Haglind E, Lycke G, Svensson C , Ahrén C.Diagnostic accuracy of double-contrast enema and rectosigmoidoscopy in connection with faecal occult blood testing for the detection of rectosigmoid neoplasms. Br J Surg. 1986 Dec;73(12):961-4.42. Cheng TI, Wong JM, Hong CF, Cheng SH, Cheng TJ, Shieh MJ, et al. Colorectal cancer screening in asymptomaic adults: comparison of colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy and fecal occult blood tests. J Formos Med Assoc 2002;101(10):685-90.43. Brevinge H, Lindholm E, BuntzenS, Kewenter J. Screening for colorectal neoplasia with faecal occult blood testing compared with flexible sigmoidoscopy directly in a 55-56 years' old population. Int J Colorectal Dis 1997;12(5):291-5.44. Bang KM, Tillett S, Hoar SK, Blair A, McDougall V. Sensitivity of fecal hemoccult testing and flexible sigmoidoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. J Occup Med 1986; 28(8):709-13.45. Demers RY, Stawick LE, Demers P. Relative sensitivity of the fecal occult blood test and flexible sigmoidoscopy indetecting polyps. Prev Med 1985;14(1):55-62.46. Ahlquist DA, Sargent DJ, Loprinzi CL, Levin TR, Rex DK , Ahnen DJ, et al. Stool DNA and occult blood testing for screen detection of colorectal neoplasia. Ann Intern Med 2008; 149(7):441-50, W481.47. Collins JF, Lieberman DA, Durbin TE, Weiss DG. Accuracy of screening for fecal occult blood on a single stool sample obtained by digital rectal examination: a comparison with recommended sampling practice. Ann Intern Med 2005;142(2):81-5.48. Kristinsson J, Nygaard K, Aadland E, Barstad S, Sauar J, Hofstad B, et al. Screening of first degree relatives of patients operated for colorectal cancer: evaluation of fecal calprotectin vs. hemoccult II. Digestion 2001;64(2):104-10.49. Tibble J, Sigthorsson G, Foster R, Sherwood R, Fagerhol M, Bjarnason I. Faecal calprotectinand faecal occult blood tests in the diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma and adenoma. Gut 2001;49(3):402-8.50. Olynyk JK, Platell CF, Collett JA. Fecal occult blood and flexible sigmoidoscopy screening for colorectal cancer: modeling the impact on colonoscopy requirements and cancer detection rates. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001; 16(4):389-92.51. Launoy G, Smith TC, Duffy SW, Bouvier V. Colorectal cancer mass-screening: estimation of faecal occult blood test sensitivity, taking into account cancer meansojourn time. Int J Cancer 1997; 73(2):220-4.52. Nakama H, Kamijo N, Fujimori K, Horiuchi A, Fattah AS, Zhang B. Clinical diagnostic accuracy of faecal occult blood test for anal diseases. Int J Qual Health Care 1997;9(2):139-41.53. Hope RL, Chu G, Hope AH, Newcombe RG, Gillespie PE, Williams SJ. Comparison of three faecal occult blood tests in the detection of colorectal neoplasia. Gut 1996;39(5):722-5.54. Allison JE, Tekawa IS, Ransom LJ, Adrain AL. A comparison of fecal occult-blood tests for colorectal-cancer screening. N Engl J Med 1996;334(3):155-9.55. Niv Y, Sperber AD. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of fecal occult blood testing (Hemoccult II) for colorectal neoplasia in symptomatic patients: a prospective study with total colonoscopy. Am J Gastroenterol 1995; 90(11):1974-7.56. Jeanson A, Jamart J, Maisin JM, Vanheuverzwyn R, Gohy P, Debongnie JC, et al. Assessment of the new immunological test Hemoblot for detecting occult blood in faeces. Eur J Cancer Prev 1994; 3(5):407-12.57. Jahn H, Joergensen OD, Kronborg O, Fenger C. Can Hemoccult-II replace colonoscopy in surveillance after radical surgery for colorectal cancer and after polypectomy? Dis Colon Rectum 1992; 35(3):253-6.58. Ahlquist DA, Wieand HS, Moertel CG, McGill DB, Loprinzi CL , O'Connell MJ, et al. Accuracy of fecal occult blood screening for colorectal neoplasia. A prospective study using Hemoccult and HemoQuant tests. JAMA 1993; 269(10):1262-7.59. Murakami R, Otani T, Nakanishi K, Fudemoto Y, Ishikawa H, Hiyama T, et al. Diagnostic validity of fecal occult blood tests for detecting gastroenterological cancers. Jpn J Cancer Res 1992; 83(2):141-5.60. Favennec L, Kapel N, Meillet D, Chochillon C, Gobert JG. Detection of occult blood in stools: comparison of three gaiac tests and a latex agglutination test. Ann Biol Clin (Paris) 1992; 50(5):311-13.61. Bertario L, Spinelli P, Gennari L, Sala P, Pizzetti P, Severini A, et al. Sensitivity of Hemoccult test for large bowel cancer in high-risk subjects. Dig Dis Sci 1988;33(5):609-613.62. Letsou G, Ballantyne GH, Zdon MJ, Zucker KA, Modlin IM. Screening for colorectal neoplasms. A comparison of the fecal occult blood test and endoscopic examination. Dis Colon Rectum 1987; 30(11):839-43.63. Poleski MH, Gordon PH. Sensitivity of the Hemoccult II slide test in detecting colonic neoplasms. Can J Surg 1986;29(2):99-101.64. Adamsen S, Kronborg O, Hage E, Fenger C. Reproducibility and diagnostic value of Hemoccult-II test. A colonoscopic evaluation in asymptomatic patients. Scand J Gastroenterol 1985; 20(9):1073-7.65. Farrands PA, O'Regan D, Taylor I. An assessment of occult blood testing to determine which patients with large bowel symptoms require urgent investigation. Br J Surg 1985; 72(10):835-7.66. Saito H, Tsuchida S, Nakaji S, Kakizaki R, Aisawa T, Munakata A, et al. An immunologic test for fecal occult blood by counter immunoelectrophoresis. Higher sensitivity and higherpositive reactions in colorectal cancer than single radial immunodiffusion and hemoccult test. Cancer 1985; 56(7):1549-52.67. Adlercreutz H, Partanen P, Virkola P, Liewendahl K, Turunen MJ. Five guaiac-based tests for occult blood in faeces compared invitro and in vivo. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1984; 44(6):519-28.68. Crowley ML, Freeman LD, Mottet MD, Strong RM, Sweeney BF, Brower RA, et al. Sensitivity of guaiac-impregnated cards for the detection of colorectal neoplasia. J Clin Gastroenterol 1983; 5(2):127-30.69. Rozen P, Levi Z, Hazazi R, Waked A, Vilkin A, Maoz E, et al. Quantitative colonoscopic evaluation of relative efficiencies of an immunochemical faecal occult blood test and a sensitive guaiac test for detecting significant colorectal neoplasms. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2009; 29(4):450-7.70. St John DJ, Young GP, Alexeyeff MA, Deacon MC, Cuthbertson AM , Macrae FA, et al. Evaluation of new occult blood tests for detection of colorectal neoplasia. Gastroenterology 1993; 104(6):1661-8.71. Zou H, Taylor WR, Harrington JJ, Hussain FT, Cao X, Loprinzi CL, et al. High detection rates of colorectal neoplasia by stool DNA testing with a novel digital melt curve assay. Gastroenterology 2009; 136(2):459-70.72. Ribet A, Escourrou J, Frexinos J, Delpu J. Screening for colorectal tumors - results of two years experience. Cancer Detect Prev 1980; 3(2):449-61.73. Johnson CD, Toledano AY, Herman BA, Dachman AH, McFarland EG, Barish MA, et al. Computerized tomographic colonography: performance evaluation in a retrospective multicenter setting. Gastroenterology 2003;125(3):688-95.74. Chen SC, Lu DS, Hecht JR, Kadell BM. CT colonography: value of scanning in both the supine and prone positions. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1999;172(3):595-9.75. Suzuki K, Yoshida H, Nappi J, Armato SG, 3rd, Dachman AH. Mixture of expert 3D massive-training ANNs for reduction of multiple types of false positives in CAD for detection of polypsin CT colonography. Med Phys 2008;35(2):694-703.76. White TJ, Avery GR, Kennan N, Syed AM, Hartley JE, Monson JR. Virtual colonoscopy vs conventional colonoscopy in patients at high risk of colorectal cancer--a prospective trial of 150 patients. Colorectal Dis 2009;11(2):138-45.77. Selçuk D, Demirel K, Ozer H, Baca B, Hatemi I, Mihmanli I, et al. Comparison of virtual colonoscopy with conventional colonoscopy in detection of colorectal polyps. Turk J Gastroenterol 2006;17(4):288-93.78. Ng CS, Doyle TC, Pinto EM, Courtney HM, Bull RK, Prevost AT, et al. Evaluation of CT in identifying colorectal carcinoma in the frail and disabled patient. Eur Radiol 2002;12(12):2988-97.79. Wong BC, Wong WM, Chan JK, Lai KC, Hu WH, Chan CK, et al. Virtual colonoscopy for the detection of colorectal polyps and cancers in a Chinese population. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2002;17(12):1323-7.80. Laghi A, Iannaccone R, Carbone I, Catalano C, Panebianco V, Di Giulio E, et al. Computed tomographic colonography (virtual colonoscopy): blinded prospective comparison with conventional colonoscopy for the detection of colorectal neoplasia. Endoscopy. 2002 Jun;34(6):441-6.81. Spinzi G, Belloni G, Martegani A, Sangiovanni A, Del Favero C, Minoli G. Computed tomographic colonography and conventional colonoscopy for colon diseases: a prospective, blinded study. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96(2):394-400.82. Mendelson RM, Foster NM, Edwards JT, Wood CJ, Rosenberg MS, Forbes GM. Virtual colonoscopy compared with conventional colonoscopy: a developing technology. Med J Aust 2000;173(9):472-5.83. Miao YM, Amin Z, Healy J, Burn P, Murugan N, Westaby D, et al. A prospective single centre studycomparing computed tomography pneumocolon against colonoscopy in the detection of colorectal neoplasms. Gut 2000;47(6):832-7.84. Kay CL, Kulling D, Hawes RH, Young JW, Cotton PB. Virtual endoscopy--comparison with colonoscopy in the detection of space-occupying lesions of the colon. Endoscopy 2000;32(3):226-32.85. Fenlon HM, Nunes DP, Schroy PC 3rd, Barish MA, Clarke PD , Ferrucci JT. A comparison of virtual and conventional colonoscopy for the detection of colorectal polyps. N Engl J Med. 1999 Nov 11;341(20):1496-503.86. Beaulieu CF, Jeffrey RB, Jr., Karadi C, Paik DS, Napel S. Display modes for CT colonography. Part II. Blinded comparison of axial CT and virtual endoscopic and panoramic endoscopic volume-rendered studies. Radiology 1999;212(1):203-12.87. Johnson CD, Chen MH, Toledano AY, Heiken JP, Dachman A, Kuo MD, et al. Accuracy of CT colonography for detection of large adenomas and cancers. N Engl J Med 2008;359(12):1207-17.88. Kim YS, Kim N, Kim SH, Park MJ, Lim SH, Yim JY, et al. The efficacy of intravenous contrast-enhanced 16-raw multidetectorCT colonography for detecting patients with colorectal polyps in an asymptomatic population in Korea. J Clin Gastroenterol 2008;42(7):791-8.89. Summers RM, Handwerker LR, Pickhardt PJ, Van Uitert RL, Deshpande KK, Yeshwant S, et al. Performance of a previously validated CT colonography computer-aided detection system in a new patient population. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2008;191(1):168-74.90. Juchems MS, Ernst A, Johnson P, Virmani S, Brambs HJ , Aschoff AJ.Electronic colon-cleansing for CT colonography: diagnostic performance. Abdom Imaging. 2008 Mar 15. [Epub ahead of print]91. Jensch S, de Vries AH, Peringa J, Bipat S, Dekker E, Baak LC, et al. CT colonography with limited bowel preparation: performance characteristics in an increased-risk population. Radiology 2008;247(1):122-32.92. Roberts-Thomson IC, Tucker GR, Hewett PJ, Cheung P, Sebben RA, Khoo EE, et al. Single-center study comparing computed tomography colonography with conventional colonoscopy. World J Gastroenterol 2008;14(3):469-3.93. Yun JY, Ro HJ, Park JB, Choi JB, Chung JE, Kim YJ, et al. Diagnostic performance of CT colonography for the detection of colorectal polyps. Korean J Radiol 2007;8(6):484-91.94. Arnesen RB, von Benzon E, Adamsen S, Svendsen LB, Raaschou HO, Hansen OH. Diagnostic performance of computed tomography colonography and colonoscopy: a prospective and validated analysis of 231 paired examinations. Acta Radiol 2007;48(8):831-7.95. Baker ME, Bogoni L, Obuchowski NA, Dass C, Kendzierski RM, Remer EM, et al. Computer-aided detection of colorectal polyps: can it improve sensitivity of less-experienced readers? Preliminary findings. Radiology 2007;245(1):140-9.96. Chaparro Sánchez M, del Campo Val L, Maté Jiménez J, Cantero Perona J, Barbosa AOlivares D, et al. Computed tomography colonography compared with conventional colonoscopy for the detection of colorectal polyps. Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007;30(7):375-80.96.97. Sallam BM, Pilch-Kowalczyk A, Gruszczynska K, Baron J, Pugliese F. Diagnostic performance of CT colonography in a population with high prevalence of large bowel disease. Med Sci Monit 2007;13 Suppl 1:105-10.98. Purkayastha S, Athanasiou T, Tekkis PP, Constantinides V, Teare J, Darzi AW. Magnetic resonance colonography vs computed tomography colonography for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer: an indirect comparison. Colorectal Dis 2007;9(2):100-11.99. Kalra N, Suri S, Bhasin DK, Sinha SK, Saravanan N, Kour T, et al. Comparison of multidetector computed tomographic colonography and conventional colonoscopy for detection of colorectal polyps and cancer. Indian J Gastroenterol 2006;25(5):229-32.100. Reuterskiold MH, Lasson A, Svensson E, Kilander A, Stotzer PO, Hellstrom M. Diagnostic performance of computed tomography colonography in symptomatic patients and in patients with increased risk for colorectal disease. Acta Radiol 2006;47(9):888-98.101. Dehmeshki J, Halligan S, Taylor SA, Roddie ME, McQuillan J, Honeyfield L, et al. Computer assisted detection software for CT colonography: effect of sphericity filter on performance characteristics for patients with and without fecal tagging. Eur Radiol 2007;17(3):662-8.102. Duff SE, Murray D, Rate AJ, Richards DM, Kumar NA. Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) performance: one-year clinical follow-up. Clin Radiol. 2006 Nov;61(11):932-6.103. Wessling J, Fischbach R, Borchert A, Kugel H, Allkemper T, Osada N et al. Detection of colorectal polyps: comparison of multi-detector row CT and MR colonography in a colon phantom. Radiology 2006;241(1):125-31.104. Juchems MS, Fleiter TR, Pauls S, Schmidt SA, Brambs HJ, Aschoff AJ. CT colonography: comparison of a colon dissection display versus 3D endoluminal view for the detection of polyps. Eur Radiol 2006;16(1):68-72.105. Summers RM, Yao J, Pickhardt PJ, Franaszek M, Bitter I, Brickman D, et al. Computed tomographic virtual colonoscopy computer-aided polyp detection in a screening population. Gastroenterology 2005;129(6):1832-44.106. You YT, Chang Chien CR, Wang JY, Ng KK, Chen JS, Tang R, et al. Evaluation of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography in detection of local recurrent colorectal cancer. World J Gastroenterol 2006;12(1):123-6.107. Abdel Razek AA, Abu Zeid MM, Bilal M, Abdel Wahab NM. Virtual CT colonoscopy versus conventional colonoscopy: a prospective study. Hepatogastroenterology 2005;52(66):1698-702.108. Halligan S, Altman DG, Taylor SA, Mallett S, Deeks JJ, Bartram CI, et al. CT colonography in the detection of colorectal polyps and cancer: systematic review, meta-analysis, and proposed minimum data set for study level reporting. Radiology 2005;237(3):893-904.109. Wessling J, Domagk D, Lugering N, Schierhorn S, Heindel W, Domschke W, et al. Virtualcolonography: identification and differentiation of colorectal lesions using multi-detector computed tomography. Scand J Gastroenterol 2005;40(4):468-76.110. Anupindi S, Perumpillichira J, Jaramillo D, Zalis ME, Israel EJ. Low-dose CT colonography in children: initial experience, technical feasibility, and utility. Pediatr Radiol 2005;35(5):518-24.111. Mulhall BP, Veerappan GR, Jackson JL. Meta-analysis: computed tomographic colonography. Ann Intern Med 2005;142(8):635-50.112. Arnesen RB, Adamsen S, Svendsen LB, Raaschou HO, von Benzon E, Hansen OH. Missed lesions and false-positive findings on computed-tomographic colonography: a controlled prospective analysis. Endoscopy 2005;37(10):937-44.113. Park SH, Ha HK, Kim MJ, Kim KW, Kim AY,Yang DH, et al. False-negative results at multi-detector row CT colonography: multivariate analysis of causes for missed lesions. Radiology 2005;235(2):495-502.114. Iannaccone R, Laghi A, Catalano C, Mangiapane F, Lamazza A, Schillaci A, et al. Computed tomographic colonography without cathartic preparation for the detection of colorectal polyps. Gastroenterology 2004;127(5):1300-11.115. Pickhardt PJ, Choi JR, Hwang I, Schindler WR. Nonadenomatous polyps at CT colonography: prevalence, size distribution, and detection rates. Radiology 2004;232(3):784-90.116. Van Gelder RE, Nio CY, Florie J, Bartelsman JF, Snel P, De Jager SW et al. Computed tomographic colonography compared with colonoscopy in patients at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology 2004;127(1):41-8.117. Johnson CD, MacCarty RL, Welch TJ, Wilson LA, Harmsen WS, Ilstrup DM et al. Comparison of the relative sensitivity of CT colonography and double-contrast barium enema for screen detection of colorectal polyps. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004;2(4):314-21.118. Macari M, Bini EJ, Jacobs SL, Naik S, Lui YW, Milano A et al. Colorectal polyps and cancers in asymptomatic average-risk patients: evaluation with CT colonography. Radiology 2004; 230(3):629-36.119. Iannaccone R, Laghi A, Catalano C, Brink JA, Mangiapane F, Trenna S et al. Detection of colorectal lesions: lower-dose multi-detector row helical CT colonography compared with conventional colonoscopy. Radiology. 2003 Dec;229(3):775-81.120. Sosna J, Morrin MM, Kruskal JB, Lavin PT, Rosen MP, Raptopoulos V. CT colonography of colorectal polyps: a metaanalysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2003;181(6):1593-8.121. Munikrishnan V, Gillams AR, Lees WR, Vaizey CJ, Boulos PB. Prospective study comparing multislice CT colonography with colonoscopy in the detection of colorectal cancer and polyps. Dis Colon Rectum 2003;46(10):1384-90.122. Johnson CD, Harmsen WS, Wilson LA, Maccarty RL, Welch TJ, Ilstrup DM et al. Prospective blinded evaluation of computed tomographic colonography for screen detection of colorectal polyps. Gastroenterology 2003;125(2):311-9.123. Gluecker T, Dorta G, Keller W, Jornod P, Meuli R, Schnyder P. Performance of multidetector computed tomography colonography compared with conventionalcolonoscopy. Gut 2002;51(2):207-11.124. Yee J, Akerkar GA, Hung RK, Steinauer-Gebauer AM, Wall SD, McQuaid KR. Colorectal neoplasia: performance characteristics of CT colonography for detection in 300 patients. Radiology 2001;219(3):685-92.125. Britton I, Dover S, Vallance R. Immediate CT pneumocolon for failed colonoscopy; comparison with routine pneumocolon. Clin Radiol 2001;56(2):89-93.126. McFarland EG, Brink JA, Pilgram TK, Heiken JP, Balfe DM, Hirselj DA et al. Spiral CT colonography: reader agreement and diagnostic performance with two- and three-dimensional image-display techniques. Radiology 2001;218(2):375-83.127. Civelli EM, Gallino G, Mariani L, Cozzi G, Biganzoli E, Salvetti M et al. Double-contrast barium enema and computerised tomography in the pre-operative evaluation of rectal carcinoma: are they still useful diagnostic procedures? Tumori 2000;86(5):389-92.128. Thorson AG, Christensen MA, Davis SJ. The role of colonoscopy in the assessment of patients with colorectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 1986;29(5):306-11.129. McPherson A, Payne JE. Importance of total colonoscopy in the diagnosis of colonic disorders. Med J Aust 1983;1(4):170-2.130. Wolff WI, Shinya H, Geffen A, Ozoktay S, DeBeer R. Comparison of colonoscopy and the contrast enema in five hundred patients with colorectal disease. AmJ Surg 1975;129(2):181-6.131. Sosna J, Sella T, Sy O, Lavin PT, Eliahou R, Fraifeld S et al. Critical analysis of the performance of double-contrast barium enema for detecting colorectal polyps > or = 6 mm in the era of CT colonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2008;190(2):374-85.132. Leslie A, Virjee JP. Detection of colorectal carcinoma on double contrast barium enema when double reporting is routinely performed: an audit of current practice. Clin Radiol 2002;57(3):184-7.133. Rockey DC, Koch J, Yee J, McQuaid KR, Halvorsen RA. Prospective comparison of air-contrast barium enema and colonoscopy in patients with fecal occult blood: a pilot study. Gastrointest Endosc 2004;60(6):953-8.134. Culpan DG, Mitchell AJ, Hughes S, Nutman M, Chapman AH. Double contrast barium enema sensitivity: a comparison of studies by radiographers and radiologists. Clin Radiol 2002;57(7):604-7.135. Connolly DJ, Traill ZC, Reid HS, Copley SJ, Nolan DJ. The double contrast barium enema: a retrospective single centre audit of the detection of colorectalcarcinomas. Clin Radiol 2002;57(1):29-32.136. Gillespie JS, Kelly BE. Double contrast barium enema and colorectal carcinoma: sensitivity and potential role in screening. Ulster Med J 2001;70(1):15-8.137. Jaramillo E, Slezak P. Comparison between double-contrast barium enema and colonoscopy to investigate lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastrointest Radiol 1992;17(1):81-3.138. Ahovuo J, Linden H, Kinnunen J, Edgren J, Kellokumpu I, Husa A. Double-contrast barium examination and endoscopy in the detection of small polyps of the large intestine. Ann Chir Gynaecol 1990;79(3):143-6.139. Myllyla V, Paivansalo M, Laitinen S. Sensitivity of single and double contrast barium enema in the detection of colorectal carcinoma. Rofo 1984;140(4):393-7.

There are no comments yet on this publication. Be the first to share your thoughts.


Seen <100 times