To investigate if polyomavirus infection during pregnancy is linked to development of neuroblastoma in the child, serum samples of 115 index mothers from the pregnancy where the child eventually developed neuroblastoma were identified and matched with serum samples from 8 control mothers per index mother. The samples were tested for. specific IgG and IgM antibodies to BK and JC virus using enzyme immunoassays based on purified yeast-expressed virus-like particles (VLPs). The serum samples as well as 10 neuroblastoma cell lines were also analyzed using Real Time (TaqMan) PCR for detection and quantification of BK virus DNA. The BK virus IgG seroprevalence was similar among index mothers (80%) and control mothers (83%) OR 0.8; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.5-1.3. BK virus IgM was also not associated with neuroblastoma risk (OR was OR = 0.6; 956k with CI, 0.2-1.9). Also JC virus had no association, neither for IgG (OR = 0.9; 95% CI, 0.6-1.4) nor for IgM (OR = 0.9; 95% CI, 0.4-1.9). All serum samples and all neuroblastoma cell lines were negative for BKV DNA. In summary, a comprehensive cohort using both serology and polyomavirus DNA detection found no evidence for association between BKV or JCV polyomaviruses and neuroblastoma.