Fluoroscopy is the chief source of occupational radiation exposure among nonradiology medical personnel. Studies suggest that nonradiologists who frequently use fluoroscopy may receive more radiation exposure than radiologists do. 3 Fluoroscopic imaging is an essential part of diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy. Some flexible bronchoscopy procedures aided by fluoroscopy are: • Transbronchial biopsy • Cytology brush specimens from peripheral lung masses • Peripheral transbronchial needle aspiration • Localization of radiopaque foreign body • Brachytherapy • Airway stent placement • Postprocedure to rule out pneumothorax. With increasing use of fluoroscopy during bronchoscopy, the risk of occupational radiation exposure has increased for health care professionals such as bronchoscopists, pulmonary fellows, nurses, bronchoscopy assistants, and other support staff. Although occupational radiation exposure during any single procedure is unlikely to pose any immediate health problem, cumulative radiation exposure over years may lead to serious health consequences if appropriate radiation protection measures are not followed. Because occupational radiation exposure, however, is generally not high enough to cause any acute adverse effects in the human body, its hazards are frequently underestimated, and radiation hygiene practices ignored. To make the matter worse, physicians and other professionals who have never received any formal training in radiation physics or radiation protection are performing more procedures that use fluoroscopic guidance. This includes bronchoscopists, who must assume responsibility for the radiation safety of their staff. This article is designed to review radiation monitoring and safety procedures for all personnel who perform or assist with fluoroscopy during flexible bronchoscopy. We discuss the vocabulary used to describe the radiation, the possible health risks associated with diagnostic radiation, the type of monitoring devices, and measures to reduce radiation exposure.