Abstract Eight heavy metals were measured seasonally in the sediment of Lake Nasser during 2013. 27 sites were chosen through 9 sectors across the main channel of the lake from Abu-Simbel to Aswan High Dam to assess the levels of the selected metals. The abundance of these metals was in the order of Fe>Mn>Zn>Cr>Ni>Cu>Pb>Cd, with mean concentrations of 12.41mg/g, 279.56, 35.38, 30.79, 27.56, 21.78, 11.21 and 0.183μg/g, respectively. Heavy metals are positively correlated with fine particles (mud fractions) and organic matter accumulation. The results showed perspicuous spatial high significant differences (P<0.01) for all the measured metals. Fe, Cr, Ni, Pb and Cd exhibited temporally high significant differences (P<0.01) before and after the flood period. Four Pollution Indices were used for the environmental assessment of Lake Nasser sediment. The indices included three single indices, Enrichment Factor (EF), Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo) and Contamination Factor (CF). While the fourth, Pollution Load Index (PLI) was an integrated index. The pollution indexes confirmed that the Lake Nasser sediment was not contaminated with these elements. Sediments of Lake Nasser may be represented as a reference for the pre-industrial background of River Nile Sediments downstream Aswan High Dam.