Deciphering the crosstalk between a host cell and a virus during infection is important not only to better define viral biology but also to improve our understanding of cellular processes. We identified the FANC pathway as a helper of viral replication and recombination by searching for cellular targets that are modified by adenovirus (Ad) infection and are involved in its outcome. This pathway, which is involved in the DNA damage response and checkpoint control, is altered in Fanconi anaemia, a rare cancer predisposition syndrome. We show here that Ad5 infection activates the FANC pathway independent of the classical DNA damage response. Infection with a non-replicating Ad shows that the presence of viral DNA is not sufficient to induce the monoubiquitination of FANCD2 but still activates the DNA damage response coordinated by phospho-NBS1 and phospho-CHK1. E1A expression alone fails to induce FANCD2 monoubiquitination, indicating that a productive viral infection and/or replication is required for FANC pathway activation. Our data indicate that Ad5 infection induces FANCD2 activation to promote its own replication. Specifically, we show that FANCD2 is involved in the recombination process that accompanies viral DNA replication. This study provides evidence of a DNA damage-independent function of the FANC pathway and identifies a cellular system involved in Ad5 recombination.