# On Extensions of AF2 with Monotone and Clausular (Co)inductive Definitions

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- Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
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## Abstract

This thesis discusses some extensions of second-order logic AF2 with primitive constructors representing least and greatest fixed points of monotone operators, which allow to define predicates by induction and coinduction. Though the expressive power of second-order logic has been well-known for a long time and suffices to define (co)inductive predicates by means of its (co)induction principles, it is more user-friendly to have a direct way of defining predicates inductively. Moreover recent applications in computer science oblige to consider also coinductive definitions useful for handling infinite objects, the most prominent example being the data type of streams or infinite lists. Main features of our approach are the use clauses in the (co)inductive definition mechanism, concept which simplifies the syntactic shape of the predicates, as well as the inclusion of not only (co)iteration but also primitive (co)recursion principles and in the case of coinductive definitions an inversion principle. For sake of generality we consider full monotone, and not only positive definitions, after all positivity is only used to ensure monotonicity. Working towards practical use of our systems we give them realizability interpretations where the systems of realizers are strongly normalizing extensions of the second-order polymorphic lambda calculus, system F in Curry-style, with (co)inductive types corresponding directly to the logical systems via the Curry-Howard correspondence. Such realizability interpretations are therefore not reductive: the definition of realizability for a (co)inductive definition is again a (co)inductive definition. As main application of realizability we extend the so-called programming-with-proofs paradigm of Krivine and Parigot to our logics, by means of which a correct program of the lambda calculus can be extracted from a proof in the logic.

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