Abstract The current quality control procedure of nuclear fuel end cap weld is mainly dependent on the destructive metallographic examination. A nondestructive examination technique, i.e., ultrasonic examination, has been developed to identify and evaluate weld discontinuities. A few interesting results of the weld quality evaluation by applying the developed ultrasonic examination technique to PHWR fuel welds are presented. In addition, the feasibility of the weld quality control by the ultrasonic examination is discussed. This study shows that the ultrasonic examination is effective and reliable method for detecting abnormal weld contours and weld discontinuities such as micro-fissure, crack, upset split and expulsion, and can be used as a quality control tool for the end cap welding process.