The professionalization of the Czech Army increases the number of soldiers in active service and then, of course, the number of reserve soldiers who are entering the job market in order to find new suitable jobs, to use their knowledge and experience gained in the previous service and to start a new professional career. As a professional soldier who, for the last six years, has been working to help soldiers leaving their active service, I have decided to map the success of reserve soldiers in the labour market, the speed of their orientation and their adaptation to the conditions of a competitive labour market, their feelings when experiencing unemployment, the effectiveness of retraining courses that are offered to the soldiers leaving their active service by the Army of the Czech Republic, and the role of employment offices played in the entrance of reserve soldiers to the labour market. The theoretical part of the thesis therefore describes active military service, service of professional soldiers and the status of reserve soldiers, but also the labour market and its functioning but with the emphasis on its imbalances causing unemployment. To meet the objectives of the practical research, I chose a qualitative method of data collection, i.e. uncontrolled observation, questioning through interviews and document analysis. The research group consisted of reserve soldiers who left their active military service between 2001 and 2010. They had worked in Army Unit 3517 in Bechyně. The conclusions of this thesis can be used both in planning and organizing retraining courses provided by the Czech Army to soldiers leaving their active military service, as well as in practice of employment offices when working with the unemployed reserve soldiers.